Our Team


Fred M. Schwarzer
Chief Executive Officer and Chairman

Fred brings to IGM extensive operational, financial and management experience, including his experience in public and private equity financing and in the development of corporate partnerships. He has been the chairman of eight life sciences companies. Fred was also a founder and managing partner of Charter Life Sciences, a venture capital firm that specializes in life sciences investments.

Fred was the chief executive officer and then chairman of Heska (HSKA). During his tenure at Heska, Fred completed Heska’s initial public offering and follow-on public offering, as well as multiple corporate partnerships and acquisitions. During this time, Heska obtained its first FDA approval, launched its first products, created its sales and marketing effort and grew its revenue to approximately $40 million.

Fred was also the chief executive officer of Mingly Capital Corporation, which was focused on developing cross-border (China/U.S.) opportunities in life sciences and information technology. He was also an executive director of the Mingly Corporation Limited (listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange), and previously he was a senior vice president of C.M. Capital, a diversified asset management company.

Fred began his professional career as an attorney, primarily representing technology companies and venture capitalists. He was a partner with Pillsbury, Madison & Sutro (now Pillsbury), and he founded the firm of General Counsel Associates (now GCA Law Partners). Fred holds a JD from the University of California, Berkeley School of Law and a BA from the University of Michigan.



Bruce Keyt, Ph.D.
Chief Scientific Officer

Bruce brings to IGM more than thirty-five years of research, development and management experience in large and small biotechnology companies, including his extensive experience in many phases of early stage drug discovery and development. This experience spans target selection and discovery, in vitro biochemistry, in vivo efficacy models and all other aspects of the pre-clinical development of antibodies and proteins as therapeutic agents.

During his 16 years at Genentech, Bruce contributed to the development of five marketed products (Factor VIII, Activase, TNKase, Avastin and Lucentis). For example, Bruce led the VEGF/anti-VEGF project team which selected antibodies for anti-tumor and ocular disease treatments. He also helped develop long half-life, more potent forms of tPA resulting in the improved thrombolytic, TNKase, and he made key contributions to the effort which isolated the anti-hemophilic factor which allowed the cloning and production of recombinant human Factor VIII.

At Millennium Biotherapeutics, Bruce was director of pharmacology, where he built a team of preclinical scientists working on biotherapies based on genomic research at Millennium Pharmaceuticals.

As vice president of preclinical development at Abgenix, Bruce led the preclinical development efforts of more than 20 therapeutic antibody candidates, resulting in the filing of two INDs and an approved BLA for Vectabix, an anti-EGFr antibody.

As chief scientific officer at Trellis Biosciences, Bruce led a team that isolated human anti- respiratory syncyctial virus antibodies from patients with RSV, and he helped validate and license those antibodies to Medimmune, now part of AstraZeneca.

Bruce received his Ph.D. in biochemistry and pharmacology from Tufts University School of Medicine and his B.S. in Chemistry from Washington University in St Louis. He is a co-inventor on more than 35 U.S. patents and patent applications, and he has a co-authored more than 55 scientific articles.



Ramesh Baliga, Ph.D.
Vice President, Discovery Biology

Ramesh brings to IGM a broad range of research and development skills and experience, including extensive experience in protein engineering, expression and purification, cell line development and bio-analytic testing.

At Sutro Biopharma, Ramesh led the team that developed a high-throughput platform for cell-free protein expression of IgGs and site-specifically labeled ADCs.

While at Catalyst Biosciences, Ramesh built and led a team that used rational design, combined with semi-automated phage-display, to engineer and screen for proteases with radically altered substrate specificity, catalytic activity and plasma inhibitor resistance (Alterase™ technology). One of these molecules, a FVIIa variant (CB813d/Marzeptacog alfa), is currently in Phase II clinical trials for Hemophilia A.

At Cytokinetics, Ramesh contributed to the discovery of small molecule modulators of cytoskeletal proteins, for cardiovascular and oncology indications. Two of these, Omecamtiv Mecabril and Tirasemtiv are currently in clinical trials for congestive heart failure (CHF) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS/Lou Gehrig’s disease).

Ramesh received a Ph.D. in Bio-organic Chemistry from California Institute of Technology and an M.Sc. in Organic Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai. He is a co-author on numerous scientific publications and a co-inventor on 11 U.S. patents and patent applications.



Stephen F. Carroll, Ph.D.
Vice President of Preclinical Sciences

Steve brings to IGM more than 30 years of academic and biotech industry experience, including extensive experience in protein biochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology and the evaluation and development of antibodies, antibody fragments, enzymes, conjugates and proteins.

Steve’s experience includes 17 years at Xoma, a biotechnology company specializing in the development of antibodies and recombinant proteins for use in inflammation, cancer, autoimmune disorders and infectious disease. As its vice president of preclinical research and scientific and product development, he managed a large preclinical research group and served as an interface between his group and Xoma’s research, development, manufacturing, clinical, regulatory, finance, patent and legal teams.

Prior to joining Xoma, Steve was an Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School and a Postdoctoral Fellow and Adjunct Lecturer in Microbiology at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Steve received a Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of California, Los Angeles, and a B.A. in biology from the University of California, San Diego. He is a co-inventor on more than 40 U.S. patents and patent applications and a co-author of more than 60 scientific articles.